About Dr. Pierre Leimgruber

Pierre Leimgruber, MD, FACC is a specialist in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at the Heart Attack & Stroke Prevention Center (HASPC) in Spokane, Washington. He practices the Bale Doneen Method of heart attack, stroke and diabetes prevention, shown in two peer-reviewed studies to halt, stabilize or even reverse CVD.

Dr. Leimgruber also serves as Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. Prior to joining HASPC, he worked for 32 years as an interventional cardiologist, affiliated with four leading hospitals in Spokane. After performing thousands of balloon angioplasties and stent placements in patients with severe CVD, he decided to change his focus to helping patients avoid these procedures by working to prevent the disease he used to treat.

Dr. Leimgruber is the author of 26 peer-reviewed research studies published in Circulation, American Journal of Cardiology, American Heart Journal, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine and other leading medical journals. He has served as Local Principal/Co-investigator of dozens of multi-center randomized clinical trials and has presented his research at annual meetings of the American Heart Association and other medical specialty groups.

Dr. Leimgruber received his medical degree from University of Zurich Medical School in Switzerland and trained with Andreas Gruentzig, MD, the inventor of balloon angioplasty, at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, cardiovascular diseases, and interventional cardiology. His professional memberships include Fellow, American College of Cardiology and Fellow, Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.

Pierre P. Leimgruber, M.D., F.A.C.C.

Cardiovascular Prevention Specialist

Heart Attack & Stroke Prevention Center
507 South Washington Street, No. 170
Spokane, WA 99204
Office: (509) 747-8000
Fax: (509) 747-8051
Cell: (509) 953-3377
pleimgruber@baledoneen.com

EDUCATION

College: Kollegium Maria-Hilf, Schwyz, Switzerland, Matura Typus A, 1970

Medical School: University of Zurich Medical School, Zurich, Switzerland, M.D., 1977

Internship: Hurley Medical Center, Flint, Michigan (1/78 -12/78)

Internal Med Residency: Hutzel Hospital, Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan (1/79 – 12/80)

Cardiology Fellowship: Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (7/81 – 6/83)

Interventional Cardiology Fellowship: With Andreas R. Gruentzig, M.D., Inventor of Balloon Angioplasty, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia (7/83 – 7/85)

INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGIST

Spokane Cardiology, PSC (7/85 – 7/2011)

Providence Spokane Heart Institute (8/2011 – 3/2017)

APPOINTMENTS

Associate in Medicine: Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (7/84 – 7/85)

Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine: University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (presently)

BOARD CERTIFICATIONS

Internal Medicine: 1981, indef

Cardiovascular Diseases: 1983, indef

Interventional Cardiology: 2000, recert 2011

PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS

Fellow, American College of Cardiology

AFFILIATIONS

Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center & Children’s Hospital – Community Associate (4/1/2017 – present)

LANGUAGES

English, German, French, Spanish

 PUBLICATIONS

  1. Leimgruber, P.P.: Doctoral dissertation entitled “Malnutrition und Familienplanung in Canderlaira.” Filed in the library of the University of Zurich, 1979.
  2. Leimgruber, P.P., Klopfenstein, H.S., Wann, L.S. Brooks, H.L.: “The hemodynamic derangement associated with right ventricular diastolic collapse in cardiac tamponade: An experimental echocardiographic study.” Circulation 68:612-620, 1983.
  3. Leimgruber, P.P., Roubin, G.S., Anderson, H.V., Bredlau, C.E., Whitworth, H.B., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Influence of intimal dissection on restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty.” Circulation 72:530-535, 1985.
  4. Leimgruber, P.P., Roubin, G.S., Hollman, J., Cotsonis, G.A., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty in patients with single vessel disease.” Circulation 73:710-717, 1986.
  5. Leimgruber, P.P., Talley, T.D., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Use of a steerable coronary guide wire facilitating catheterization of atherosclerotic and tortuous peripheral vessels.” American Journal of Cardiology 58:187-189, 1986.
  6. Leimgruber, P.P., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA).” Z. Kardiol. 74 Suppl 6:107-10, 1985.
  7. Singh, S., Wann, L.S., Schuchard, G.H., Klopfenstein, H.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Keeland, M.H., Brooks, H.L.: “Right ventricular and right atrial collapse in cardiac tamponade: A combined echocardiographic and hemodynamic study.” Circulation 70:966-971, 1984.
  8. Anderson, H.V., Leimgruber, P.P., Roubin, G.S., Nelson, D.L., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Distal coronary artery perfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.” American Heart Journal 110: 720-726, 1985.
  9. Bredlau, C.E., Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B., Gruentzig, A.R.: “In-hospital morbidity and mortality in elective coronary angioplasty.” Circulation 72:1044-1052, 1985.
  10. Anderson, H.V., Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Primary angiographic success rates of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.” American Journal of Cardiology 56:712-717, 1985.
  11. Anderson, H. V., Nelson, D.L., Leimgruber, P.P., Roubin, G.S., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Coronary artery perfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.” Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 211:3-20, 1986.
  12. Whitworth, H.B., Hollman, J., Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Gruentzig, A.R.: “The effect of nifedipine on recurrent stenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 8:1271-1276, 1986.
  13. Anderson, H.V., Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Cox, W.R., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Measurement of trans-stenotic pressure gradient during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.” Circulation 73:1223-1230, 1986.
  14. Anderson, H.V., Zaatari, G.S., Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Steerable fiberoptic catheter delivery of laser energy in atherosclerotic rabbits.” American Heart Journal 111:1065-1072, 1986.
  15. Roberts, C.S., Anderson, H.V., Carboni, A.A., Justicz, A.G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Kloner, R.A., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Usefulness of intracoronary infusion of fluorocarbon distal to prolonged coronary occlusion by angioplasty balloon in dogs.” American Journal of Cardiology 67:1202-1205, 1986.
  16. DeWood, M.A., Leimgruber, P.P., Shields, J.P., Kunkel, R. M., Hensley, G.R., Reisig, A.H. Jr.: “Thrombosis in acute myocardial infarction and sudden death: Angiographic aspects.” Cardiovasc. Clin 18(I):195-211, 1987.
  17. Redd, D.C., Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Abi-Mansour, P., Douglas, J.S. Jr., King, S.B.: “The trans-stenotic pressure gradient trend as a predictor of acute complications after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.” Circulation 76(4):792-801, 1987.
  18. Topol, E.J., Ellis, S., Fishman, J., Leimgruber, P.P., Myler, R.K., Stortzer, S.H., O’Neill, W.W., Roubin, G.S., King, S.B.: “Multicenter study of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for right coronary artery ostial stenosis.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 9:1214-1218, 1987.
  19. Anderson, H.V., Zaatari, G.S., Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Coaxial laser energy delivery using a steerable catheter in canine coronary arteries.” Am. Heart J. 113(I):37-48, 1987.
  20. Leimgruber, P.P.: “Right coronary artery ostial stenosis. A contraindication for balloon angioplasty?” CVR&R 9(5):63-65, 1988.
  21. Weaver, W. Douglas, Reisman, Mark A., Griffin, John J., Buller, Christopher E., Leimgruber, Pierre P., Henry, Timothy, D’Haem, Christopher, Clark, Vivian L., Martin, Jenny S., Cohen, David J., Neil, Nancy, Every, Nathan R.: “Optimum percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty compared with routine stent strategy trial (OPUS-1):a randomized trial.” THE LANCET, Vol. 355, June 24, 2000.
  22. Lerman A., Voel J., Fischell T., Leimgruber, P., Firth B. “The biology of plaque and patient vulnerability.” Panel discussion. Journal of Invasive Cardiology 17(4):239-42, April 2005.
  23. Hobson, R.W., Roubin, G., Kathir, K., Sheffet, A.J., Leimgruber, P.P., White, C., Nazzal M., Chakhtoura, E., Lal, B.K., Brott, T.G., Tom, M., Hughes, S., Longbottom, M., Howard, G., Martin, S., Voeks, J. “Closure of the Lead-In Phase of CREST: 30-Day and 1-Year Analyses.” Stroke 39(2): 527, February 2008
  24. Brott, Thomas G.; Hobson, Robert W.; Howard, George; Roubin, Gary S.; Clark,Wayne, M.; Brooks, William; Mackey, Ariane; Hill, Michael D.; Leimgruber,   Pierre P.; Sheffet, Alice J.; Howard, Virginia J.; Moore, Wesley, S.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Cutlip, Donald E.; Cohen, David J.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Ferguson, Robert D.; Cohen, Stanley N.; Blackshear, Joseph L.; Silver, Frank L.; Mohr, J.P.; Lal, Brajesh K.; Meschia, James F.: “Stenting versus Endarterectomyfor Treatment of Carotid-Artery Stenosis.” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 363, July 1, 2010: 11- 23.
  25. Blackshear, J., Cutlip, D.E., Roubin, G., Hill, M., Leimgruber, P., begg, R., Cohen, D., Eidt, J., Voeks, J., Brott, T.:Myocardial Infarction After Carotid Stenting and Endarterectomy. “Results from the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial” Circulation 2011 Jun 7; 123 (22):2571-8.
  26. Brott, T.G, Howard, G., Roubin, G.S., Meschia, J. Freeman, RN for., Mackey, A., Brooks, W., Moore, W.S., Hill, M.D., Matnese, V.A., Clark, W.M., Timaran, C.H., Heck, D., Leimgruber, P.P., Sheffet, A.J., Howard, V.J., Chaturvedi, S., Lal, B.K., Voeks, J.H., Hobson, R.W. “Long-Term Results of Stenting Versus Endarterectomy for Carotid-Artery Stenosis” The New England Journal of Medicine 2016;374:1021-31.

BOOKS

  1. Leimgruber, P.P., Gruentzig, A. R. (1987) Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In: Dordrecht, the Netherlands: M. Nijhoff Publishers, Invasive Cardiovascular Therapy. Hilger HH, Hornbach V, Rashkind WJ (Eds).

ABSTRACTS

  1. Leimgruber, P.P., Klopfenstein, H.S., Wann, L.S·, Janzer, D.G., Brooks, H.S·: “Right ventricular diastolic collapse is a sensitive and early echocardiographic sign of cardiac tamponade.” Presented at the American Federation of Clinical Research Regional Meeting in Chicago, Illinois, November 4-6, 1982. Clinical Research 30:714, 1982
  2. Leimgruber, P.P., Klopfenstein, H.S., Wann, L.S., Janzer, D.G., Brooks, H.L.: “Right ventricular diastolic collapse is a sensitive and early sign of cardiac tamponade.” Presented at the 55th American Heart Association Meeting in Dallas, Texas, November 15-18, 1982. Circulation 66:II-91, 1982
  3. Leimgruber, P.P., Moldenhauer, R.T., Libow, M.A., Douglas, J.S., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Fate of occluded side branches after coronary angioplasty.” Presented at the 57th American Heart Association Meeting in Miami Beach, Florida, November 12-15, 1984. Circulation 70:II-296, 1984
  4. Leimgruber, P.P., Roubin, G.S., Rice, C.R., Tate, J.S., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Influence of intimal dissection after coronary angiopalsty (PTCA) on restenosis rate.” Presented at the 57th American Heart Association Meeting in Miami Beach, Florida, November 12-15,1984. Circulation 70:II-175, 1984.
  5. Leimgruber, P.P., Bredlau, C.E., Cotsonis, G.A., Anderson, H.V., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B.: “Risk factors for restenosis after coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with single vessel disease (SVD).” Circulation 72:III-140, 1985
  6. Arnold, T.C., Hesser, F.S., Gentry, L., Leimgruber, P.P., King, S.B.: “A new light weight pressure dressing for the femoral puncture site after coronary angioplasty (PTCA).” Presented at the 57th American Heart Association Meeting in Miami Beach, Florida, November 12-15, 1984. Circulation 70:II-287, 1984
  7. Libow, M.A., Leimgruber, P.P., Roubin, G.S., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Restenosis after angioplasty (PTCA) in chronic total coronary artery occlusion.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 5:445, 1985.
  8. Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Angioplasty in multivessel coronary artery disease: Patient selection and dilatation strategy.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 5:445, 1985
  9. Gentry, L.T., Leimgruber, P.P.: “Advisability of stress test and discharge one day after uncomplicated coronary angioplasty (PTCA).” Circulation 72:III-179, 1985.
  10. Redd, D.C.B., Leimgruber, P.P., Roubin, G.S., Abi-Mansour, P., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Can the acute complications following coronary angioplasty (PTCA) be predicted by the trans-stenotic pressure gradient trend?” Circulation 72:III-218, 1985.
  11. Hoffmeister, T.M., Whitworth, H.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Abi-Mansour, P., Tate, T.M., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Analysis of anatomic and procedural factors related to restenosis after double lesion coronary angioplasty (PTCA).” Circulation 72:III-398, 1985.
  12. Roubin, G.S., Leimgruber, P.P., Whitworth, H.B., Bredlau, C.E., Pilcher, G., Abi- Mansour, P., Hoffmeister, T., Douglas, J.S., King, S.B., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Influence of balloon size on outcome after coronary angioplasty (PTCA).” Circulation 72:III-400,1985.
  13. Roubin, G.S., Redd, D., Leimgruber, P.P., Abi-Mansour, P., Tate, J., Gruentzig, A.R.: “Restenosis after multi-lesion and multi-vessel coronary angioplasty (PTCA).” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 7:22 A, 1986
  14. Topol, E.J., Ellis, S., Fishman-Rosen, J., Leimgruber, P.P., Myler, R.K., Stertzer, S.H., O’Neill, W.W., Roubin, G.S., Douglas, J.S., King, S.K.: “Multicenter study of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for right coronary artery ostial stenosis.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 9:20A, 1214-8, 1987
  15. DeWood, M.A., Rubosky, D., Welsh, D., Blanford, V., Ross, M., Stifter, W., Leimgruber, P.P., Shields, J.P.: “High dose dobutamine induced myocardial stress: Comparison of quantitative 2-D echo wall motion and TL201 SPECT.” Circulation 82:III-732, 1990.
  16. Leimgruber, P., Shields, P. – Northwest Cardiovascular Research Institute: “Ultrafast computed tomography utilizing rapid central venous injections to assess coronary bypass graft patency.” Presented in: Advances in Ultrafast CT: 1991, an international symposium. October 5, 1991.
  17. DeWood, M., Westover, D., Leimgruber, P., Canaday, D., Stifter, W. “Cost containment in acute myocardial infarction: Evidence from a randomized trial that primary PTCA versus rt-PA reduces hospital and followup cost.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 19:3, 132A, March 1, 1992.
  18. Leimgruber, P., Judge, T., Fuhs, B., Viren, F., Shields, P. “Correlation Between Coronary Artery Calcification Assessed by Ultrafast CT and Angiographically Documented Coronary Artery Disease.” Presented at the American College of Cardiology 42nd Annual Scientific Session, Anaheim, California, March 14-18, 1993. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 21:2, February 1993:1A.

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Local Principal/ Co-investigator Investigator for the following studies:

Marcator Study, 1992

r-PA vs t-PA, 1993

RPA-04, 1994

“A Randomized Open-Label, Multicenter, Angiographic Study to Compare the Effects of 10+10 MU with Front-Loaded Alteplase in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction”

Aprotinin, 1995

“A Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Group Comparison Study to Investigate the Efficacy of Aprotinin in Reducing Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Patients Undergoing Primary Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery for Myocardial Revascularization [CABG]”

EBT, The Spokane Heart Study,  1994

“Electron Beam Tomography: Ultrafast Computed Tomography of the Coronary Arteries in Healthy Male Volunteers”

Synergy III PTCA catheter study, 1994

Gusto III, 1996

“A Randomized Trial of Reteplase [r-PA] vs Accelerated Alteplase [t-PN] for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction.”

Orbit, 1996

“Oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade to inhibit thrombosis. Safety and efficacy of Xemilofiban administration to patients with stable or unstable angina who are hospitalized for a recent MI and have completed coronary revascularization”

Opus, 1996-1999

“Optimal PTCA utilization vs stent trial”

Xemilofiban, 1996

“Safety Evaluation of Xemilofiban HCL Administration of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Pre-Pilot”

SYMPHONY, 1997-1999

“A Phase III, multicenter, international, randomized, double-blind, aspirin-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sibrafiban (Ro48-3657), an oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, as therapy for the prevention of secondary vascular events in patients after Acute Coronary Syndrome”

ASSENT II, 1997-1999

“A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel Group, International Trial of Single Bolus TNK-Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA) Versus Accelerated Infusion of rt-PA (Alteplase, Activase ®) in Acute Myocardial Infarction: ASSENT II (Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic agent)”

HALT MI, 1997-1999

“A Phase 2B Safety and Efficacy Study of Hu23F2G in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated With Direct Angioplasty”

DC vs. SC ICD, 1999-2000

Ventritex MD Family of Single Chamber ICD’s versus Dual Chamber ICD’s for the discrimination of Arrhythmias

AMISTAD II, 1999-2000

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Xxxx as an Adjunct to Reperfusion Therapy (Thrombolysis or Mechanical Reperfusion) in the Treatment of Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction.

CREDO, 1999-Closure

Xxxx for Reduction of Events During Extended Observation Trial

PRESTO, 1999-Closure

Prevention of Restenosis by Xxxx and its Outcomes: A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Two Doses and Two Durations of Xxxx.

TARGET, 1999-Closure

A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Xxxx-Controlled Study to evaluate the efficacy of Xxxx in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Intracoronary Stent Placement.

VALIANT, 1999-Closure

A Multinational, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, active-Controlled, Parallel Group Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Treatment with Xxxx, Xxxx and Their Combination in High-Risk Patients After Myocardial Infarction.

LIPS, 2000

Correlation Between Insulin Resistance and Specific Lipoprotein Subclasses.

AMIODARONE, 2000-Closure

A Double-Blind Comparison of the Incidence of Hypotension with Two Formations of Intravenous Amiodarone: Cordaroneâ I.V. vs Xxxx I.V. Injection.

PROVE IT, 2000-Closure

Xxxx or Xxxx Evaluation and Infection Therapy

HERMES, 2000-Closure

A Prospective, Non-Randomized, Multi-Center, Single-Arm Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Xxxx for Treatment of Sub-Optimal Post-Procedural Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) Results in De Novo or Restenotic Renal Artery Stenoses.

OCTAVE, 2000-Closure

Xxxx Cardiovascular Treatment Assessment versus Xxxx

CRISP, 2000-2001

A Single-Arm Open-Label Study of Xxxx in Community Based patients with Hypercholesterolemia at risk for Cardiovascular Disease and patients with Cardiovascular Disease

Iliac Stent, 2001-Closure

Randomized Trial of the Xxxx for Iliac Artery Suboptimal Angioplasty

SYNERGY, 2001-2003

A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter Study in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes,

REPLACE-2, 2001-Closure

Randomized Evaluation in PCI Linking Xxxx to Reduced Clinical Events

Atrial Fibrillation, 2002-Closure

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Xxxx in Patients with Symptomatic Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

ISIS-SE, 2002-2008

A Prospective, Multi-Center, Non-Randomized Registry to Evaluate the Safety and efficacy of Xxxx in subjects with De Novo and Restenotic Lesions of the Iliac Arteries

CREST, 2000 – 2010

Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial

EASE, 2000-2003

A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group, 6-week Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Xxxx When Added to Ongoing Therapy with a Xxxx Versus Xxxx Therapy Alone, in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia Who Have Not Reached National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III Target LDL-Cholesterol Level

CASTLE, 2001-2005

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Parallel-Arm Study to Assess the Long-Term Effects of Xxxx Versus Xxxx Administered Orally to Patients with Intermittent Claudication Secondary to Perpheral Arterial Disease

REPLACE 2, 2001-2003

Randomized Evaluation in PCI Linking Xxxx to Reduced Clinical Events, Part 2

CAPTIVE, 2001-2004

Establish the safety and effectiveness of the Xxxx during PTCA and stent treatment of coronary saphenous vein bypass graft lesions

SECuRITY, 2001 – 2004

A registry to evaluate the Xxxx Bare Wire Cerebral Protection System and Xxxx Stent in Patients at High Risk for Carotid Endarterectomy

VICTORY, 2003-2004

Xxxx/Xxxx combo Therapy Safety and Efficacy Trial

ACUITY, 2003-2007

A randomized comparison of Xxxx versus Xxxx in patients undergoing early invasive management for acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation

EVEREST, 2004-2006

A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Long Term Efficacy and Safety of Xxxx in Subjects Hospitalized with Worsening Congestive Heart Failure

LUNAR, 2004-2005

A 12-week, open-label, 3-arm, parallel group, Multicenter, phase IIIB study comparing the efficacy and safety of Xxxx with that of Xxxx in subjects with ACS

BEACH, 2003-2007

A Prospective, Single-arm, Multi-Center Trial Evaluating the Xxxx and the Xxxx, in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Carotid Artery Stenosis

TAXUS ATLAS, 2004-2010

A Multi-center, Single-arm Study of the Xxxx for the Treatment of Patients with De Novo Coronary Artery Lesions

DELTA MI, 2004-2006

Direct Inhibition of Xxxx to Limit Total Infarct Size in Acute Myocardial Infarction

EARLY ACS, 2004-2007

Early Xxxx in Non-ST-segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating the Clinical Benefits of Early Front-loaded Xxxx in the Treatment of Patients with Non-ST-segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

THE WOMEN STUDY, 2004-2006

What is the Optimal Method for Ischemia Evaluation in WomeN – A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized Study to Establish the Optimal Method for Detection of CAD Risk in Women at an Intermediate-High Pre-Test Likelihood of CAD

TAXUS ATLAS DIRECT STENT STUDY, 2005-2011

A Multi-Center, Single-Arm Study Of The Xxxx For The Direct Stenting Treatment Of Patients With De Novo Coronary Artery Lesions.

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST* STUDY, 2005-2006

*Both Exercise and Adenosine Stress Testing -A Pilot Study Examining the Value of Combined Exercise and Adenosine Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging as Compared with Adenosine Testing Alone for the Evaluation of Women at Intermediate or High Likelihood for Coronary Artery Disease

TRA-PCI, 2005-2007

A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety of Xxxx in Subjects Undergoing Non-Urgent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

ACT I, 2006-2013

A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Demonstrate the Equivalence (non-Inferiority) of Carotid Artery Stenting Using the Xxxx with the Xxxx, Compared to Cardotid Endarterectomy for the Treatment of Asymptomatic Extracranial Carotid Occlusive Disease

IMPROVE-IT, 2006-2015

A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Study to Establish Safety of Xxxx vs Xxxx Monotherapy in High Risk Subjects Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome

HORIZONS AMI, 2006-2010

A Dual Arm Factorial Randomized Trial in Patients with ST Segment Elevation AMI to Compare the Results of Using Either Anticoagulation with Xxxx Plus Routine Xxxx and Xxxx, and Primary Angioplasty with Stent Implantation with Either a Xxxx or an Otherwise Identical Xxxx

ZoMaxx II, 2006-Closure

A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Xxxx as Compared to the Xxxx in De Novo Coronary Artery Lesions

CAPTURE 2, 2006-2010

A Post-Approval Study Of The Guidant Xxxx and Xxxx to Uncover Unanticpated or Rare Events

CHAMPION PCI, 2006-2010

A Clinical Trial Comparing Xxxx to Xxxx in Subjects with Acute Coronary Syndromes who are to be Managed With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

ROCKET AF, 2007-2010

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Parallel-Group, Multicenter, Event-Driven, Non-Inferiority Study Comparing the Efficacy and Study Drug With Adjusted-Dose Oral Xxxx for the Prevention of Stroke and Non-Central Nervous System Systemic Embolism in Subjects With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation

POINT II, 2007-2008

A Phase 3 Clinical Trial to Assess Perfusion and Obstruction Identified by Non-Invasive Technology Using Xxxx in Patients with Suspected Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease II

ASCEND HF, 2007-2011

Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Xxxx in Subjects with Decompensated Heart Failure

PERSEUS, 2007-2014

A Prospective Evaluation in a Randomized Trial f the Safety and Efficacy of the Use of the Xxxx Coronary Stent System for the Treatment of De Novo Coronary Artery Lesions

TRA-2P (TIMI 50), 2008-Closure

Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events

SATURN, 2008-2011

A 104 Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel Group, Multi-Center, Phase IIIb Study Comparing the Effects of Treatment with Xxxx or Xxxx on Atherosclerotic Disease Burden as Measured by Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

EMBOLDEN, 2009-2010

Xxxx in Carotid Stenting for High Risk Surgical Subjects

ATLAS II, 2009-2011

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Event-Driven Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Xxxx in Subjects with a Recent Acute Coronary Syndrome.

AXIOM ACS, 2009-2010

A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Xxxx in Subjects with Recent Acute Coronary Syndromes

PLATINUM, 2009-2016

A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Trial to Assess a Xxxx for the Treatment of up to two de novo Coronary Artery Lesions

EXCEED, 2009-2010

Evaluation of Xxxx Catheterization Lab Endpoints and Excellence in Deliverability

HERCULES, 2009-2013

A Prospective, Non-Randomized, Multi-Center, Single-Arm Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Xxxx for the Treatment of Suboptimal Post-Procedural Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Atherosclerotic de novo or Restenotic Renal Artery Stenosis in Patients with Uncontrolled Hypertension

ACTIVE, 2009-2013

Medtronic – Use of the Xxxx in the Treatment of Iliac Vessel Disease

DAL-OUTCOMES, 2009-Closure

A Phase III, Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study, to Evaluate the Effects of Xxxx on Cardiovascular Risk in Stable CHD Patients, with a Documented Recent Acute Coronary Syndrome

SOLID, 2010-2014

A Clinical Outcomes Study of Xxxx versus Placebo in Subjects Following Acute Coronary Syndrome to Compare the Incidence of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events

ELEVATE, 2010-2011

Escalating Xxxx by Involving a Genetic Strategy

PARADIGM, 2010-2014

A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel Group, Active-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Xxxx compared to Xxxx on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction

PEGASUS, 2010-2015

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel Group, Multinational Trial, to Assess the Prevention of Thrombotic Events with Xxxx Compared to Placebo on a Background of Acetylsalicylic Acid Therapy in Patients with History of Myocardial Infarction

CHAMPION PHOENIX, 2010-2013

A Clinical Trial Comparing Xxxx to Xxxx Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

CHOICE, 2010-2011

Carotid Stenting for High Surgical-Risk Patients; Evaluating Outcomes Through the Collection of Clinical Evidence

FlexStent OPEN, 2011-Ongoing

Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of the XXXX Self Expanding Stent System

CANOPY, 2015-2016

Carotid Artery Stenting Outcomes in the Standard Risk Population for Carotid Endarterectomy

CREST-2, 2015-Ongoing

Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial